Terms of Reference
TURNING UP THE HEAT II
Gendered Impact of Climate Change and Natural Resources Management on Livelihood, Conflict and Criminality in North-Western and North-Central States in Nigeria
Climate change as a threat multiplier is responsible for exacerbating existing societal tensions such as land crisis, herdsmen and farmers quarrel, inter-ethnic clashes, political conflict and criminality in Nigeria, thus posing an increasing threat to security in the country. The continuous and rampant insecurity in North-East Nigeria linked to the 2009 Boko Haram insurgency has led to the expansion of jihadist groups to neighbouring states within Nigeria. In North-West and North Central, diverse factors including population growth and climate change have slowly increased competition over natural resources.
Nigeria’s climate has been changing, evident in increases in temperature; variable rainfall; rise in sea level and flooding; drought and desertification; land degradation; more frequent extreme weather events; affected freshwater resources and loss of biodiversity. These changes are exacerbating other societal tensions, including immigration, land crisis, herdsmen and farmers clashes, inter-ethnic clashes, political conflict, criminality. The situation has especially generated acute tension between farmers and herders and the establishment of ethnic-based vigilante and armed groups, initially mobilised for protection purposes. The farmer-herder conflict in the North-West and North Central has been triggering the current crisis in the region, providing fertile grounds for the extension of jihadist influence in the region. Indeed, the region has been witnessing a peak in criminal activity, from cattle theft, armed robbery, kidnapping for ransom, sexual assault, to mass killings which could be linked to jihadist activities.
2.0 Purpose of the Research
The purpose of the study is to explore how climate change impacts livelihood, criminality and conflict (including violent extremism) in Northcentral and Northwest regions of Nigeria with a gendered lens.
i. To deepen understanding of the conflict dynamics and provide recommendations for strategic and sustainable approaches to the conflict.
ii. To generate evidence for advocacy and influencing to increase the sense of urgency with local, state, national government, donors and multilateral organisations to act upon the growing climate, environmental and conflict risks.
. Additionally, the study will take a particular look at the role gender and gender relations play in link to the research’s focus. The study will provide recommendations for the implementation of conflict and gender sensitive programmes focusing on climate change and natural resources management which would reduce the risk of criminality and violent conflict, including youth socio-economic inclusion and community-based opportunities. The evidence raised will follow a dissemination plan and will be used for influencing to increase the sense of urgency with local, state, national government, donors, and multilateral organisations to act upon the growing climate, environmental and conflict risks.
The research would cover communities within selected states of North-western and Northcentral regions of Nigeria. Data will be collected information from a range of stakeholders and interest groups, including relevant government agencies, peace structures and leaders at community, Local Government Areas (LGA), and the state levels; Religious networks, Business associations, Civil society coalitions, Civil Society Organizations (CSOs), Association of People Living With Disabilities (PLWDs), Women’s and men associations, youth associations and groups as well as an agreed cross-selection of potential beneficiaries ( including adolescent boys and girls and young women) in LGAs within the states the project will be operating in.
3.0 Gendered and Inclusion Approach
The lead researcher(s) will adopt a gendered approach in conducting this assignment, taking into consideration social stereotypes, needs and resources of men and women, boys and girls and unequal social hierarchies that not only give men dominance over women, but also exclude young people and other marginalized groups from decision making process. Gender will be considered in the identification and selection of participants to be surveyed and interviewed. Considering the highly patriarchal and conservative context where men are the de facto gate keepers, women, youth and people living with disabilities’ leaders will be deliberately reached through community engagements prior to the study. Similarly, the research team will be a mix of male and female to align with cultural norms where men are not allowed to access households (Ba’shiga)1 and to ensure that both men and women feel comfortable to speak freely, thus ensuring reliable data. The data will be analysed using a gender lens, indicating the gendered impact of climate change and natural resources management on livelihood, conflict and criminality, considering social identities and power dynamics.
International Alert expects the consultant to adopt and use customized and appropriate mix of qualitative and quantitative methods to gather and analyze data/information, in order to get diverse perspectives and to promote participation of different groups of stakeholders including women, men, girls and boys including people with disabilities and special needs. The study should include secondary data as well as primary data based on the scope of data agreed with International Alert. The consultant must propose a methodology and plan for which will be approved by International Alert technical team. Data triangulation is required to ensure the credibility and accuracy of data/ information gathered through various tools. The consultant will also need to determine what type of format the data collection/documentation will be represented.
6.0 Procedures: schedule and logistics
The process is expected to take 30 working days including preparation, data collection and analysis and reporting. The consultant should be able to undertake some of the tasks concurrently to fit within the planned timeframe, without compromising the quality expected. The assignment is expected to commence on end of August 2022 with the final survey assessment report expected by the end of September 2022. The consultant will commit to an estimated total of 30 working days.
- Development of inception report and desk review
- Preparation of data collection instruments for survey
- Onboarding of consultant(s)/research team
- Training of research team and Testing of research tools
- Community entry with relevant government and community stakeholders and data collection in target locations
- Data cleaning and checking, analysis and perpetration of preliminary report/findings
- Data validation workshop
- Finalization of report (proofreading, editing, etc…)
7.0 Support from International Alert
International Alert will be responsible for the following:
• Share all necessary documents with the consultant to finalize the research methodology and data collection tools
• Provide input on study methodology, data collection tools and report.
• Flight expenses for the Consultant within Nigeria (where necessary)
• Working space for the Consultant while in Abuja (where necessary)
• Overall accountability of the process
• Help with recruitment of enumerators (if needed)
• Provide support to the study technical lead for the field visits processes such as orientation and training of enumerators, FGDs and KIIs
• Closely follow up the data collection process, ensuring quality control, daily debriefing, and meeting the timelines
• Support lead consultant in informing study audience for their involvement in the study and help in setting specific dates for the study field schedule
• Approve inception report before data collection
1. Draft soft copy of the inception report including survey tools and analytical framework
2. Soft copy of the final inception report including final translated survey tools, sampling, methodology and analytical framework
3. Electronic copy of draft report. Reporting format will be agreed during the inception phase
4. Preliminary presentation of findings for validation
5. Draft soft copy of the final survey report including data sets
6. Soft copy of the final study report including datasets
1. The budget for this project will cover professional fees, travel costs, workshops, mobilization expenses and supply costs of the consulting partner team or institution
2. It is important to note that should there be any problem in the delivery of outputs pertaining to quality and schedule, the consultant is expected to make the necessary corrective actions without affecting the overall project delivery. This will have no additional cost to International Alert
10.0 Qualification and experience
The consultant should have;
• Strong and documented experience in conducting participatory quantitative and qualitative assessments related to peacebuilding, gender, NRM and/or community development
• Demonstrated experience in leading at least three similar studies/assessments in similar contexts.
• At least 5 years of experience conducting impact surveys and end line evaluations for programs such as NRM, peacebuilding and governance
• Must have experience in training local staff in quantitative and qualitative data collection tools including entry templates
• Experience in designing survey methodology, data collection tools, processing, and analysis of data
• Familiarity with digital data collection and tool designs
• Ability to interact with host state government, partners and/or others
• Strong organizational, analytical and reporting skills, presentation skills, attention to detail, ability to meet deadlines, and proficiency in Microsoft Office and qualitative and quantitate data analysis software/tools
• Previous experience in a fragile environment with tight security context will be preferred.
• Strong understanding and experience on gender and inclusion and experience with disability and inclusion
Excellent verbal and written communication in English required. Understanding of any of the local languages used in the context desirable.
• 11.0 Application Process and Requirements
Qualified and interested parties are to submit the following to [email protected] on or before 24th August 2022.
• Letter of interest in submission of a proposal- One Pager executive summary of execution
• A detailed technical proposal clearly demonstrating good understanding of the ToR including but not limited to the following; (1) Consultant Profile/CV (2) Description of the Methodology (3) Demonstrated previous experience in similar assignments and qualifications outlined in this ToR (4) Proposed data management plan (collection, processing and analysis). (5) Proposed timeframe detailing activities and a work plan.
• A financial proposal with a detailed breakdown of costs (including all applicable taxes) for the study quoted in Naira.
Please note that applications will be treated on a rolling basis.